# Knowledge Areas

### GISc (Professional)

#### MS: Mathematics and Applied Mathematics

Applying mathematics and statistics in solving GISc related problems

MS1 Mathematics: Introduction to higher mathematics and problem solving (48):
Differential and integral calculus of functions of one variable, differential equations, partial derivatives, Taylor series, mean value theorem, solving systems of linear and non-linear equations, trigonometric functions, hyperbolic functions, conic sections, complex numbers, vector geometry, matrix algebra, eigen vectors and values, linear transformations, space curves and surfaces, differential geometry. Series and polynomials. Basic statistics: regression, distributions, error theory, correlation, sampling. including sets, probability, permutations and combinations, and mean, standard deviation.

Total Credits: 48

#### PS: Physical science

Understanding the principles of Physics in geomatics practice, instrumentation and technology related to GISc

PS1 Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion, friction, momentum, and work (12):
Kinematics, Newton’s laws of motion, work, energy, power, rotational dynamics, torque, angular momentum, gravity, periodic motion, simple harmonic motion, interference, wave motion, diffraction, refraction and reflection of waves, Doppler effect, electricity and magnetism, electromagnetic spectrum. Optics.

Total Credits: 12

#### AM: Analytical methods

Understanding and applying different analytical methods related to GISc

AM3: Geometric measures (12)
Distances and lengths; direction; shape; area; volume proximity and distance decay; adjacency and connectivity; Terrain Analysis.

AM4: Basic analytical operations (12)
Buffer; overlay; neighborhoods; map algebra.

AM5: Basic analytical methods (12)
Point pattern analysis; Kernels and density estimation; Spatial cluster analysis; Spatial interaction; Analyzing multidimensional attributes; Cartographic modeling; Multi-criteria evaluation; Spatial process models; Geostatistics; Network analysis.

AM7: Spatial statistics (12)
Graphical methods; Stochastic processes; The spatial weights matrix; Global measures of spatial association; Local measures of spatial association; Outliers; Bayesian methods.

Total Credits: 48

#### DA: Design aspects

Understanding and applying the design aspects of databases for geospatial data.

DA4 Database design (24)
Modelling tools; Conceptual model; Logical model; Physical model

Total Credits: 24

#### CF: Conceptional Foundation

Understanding the information technology environment

CF7: Introduction to information technology, domains and elements of geographical information (24):
Computer hardware, operating systems, data communications (local and wide area cover networks), word processing, spread sheets, internet, systems development (including systems analysis and design), distributed systems, CAD, security of systems and data/information, data storage, data dissemination, spatial data integration (coordinate systems, projections, resembling rasters). Geographic phenomena, geographic information, and geographic tasks are described in terms of space, time, and properties. Elements of GI i.e. discrete entities, events and processes, fields in space and time, integrated models.

Total Credits: 24

#### DM: Data modelling

Understanding and applying DBMS and Data modelling

DM2: Database management system (12)
Co-evolution of DBMS and GIS; Relational DBMS; Object-oriented DBMS; Object-relational DBM; Extensions of the relational model. Data mining. Spatial data structures i.e. lists, R- and KD-trees.

DM3: Tessellation data models (12)
Grid representations; The raster model; Grid compression methods; The hexagonal model; Terrain models including the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model; Resolution; Hierarchical data models.

DM4: Vector and object data models (12)
Geometric primitives; The spaghetti model; The topological model; Classic vector data models; The network model; Linear referencing; Object-based spatial databases.

Total Credits: 36

#### DN: Data manipulaion

Implementing data manipulation in a GISc environment

DN1: Representation transformation (16)
Impacts of transformations; Data model and format conversion; Interpolation; Vector-to-raster and raster-to-vector conversions; Raster resampling; Coordinate transformations; Data fusion.

DN2: Generalization and aggregation (8)
Scale and generalization, caveats of generalizing algorithms (Douglas-Peuker) and auto-snap-up routines; Approaches to point, line, and area generalization; Classification and transformation of attribute measurement levels; Aggregation of spatial entities.

Total Credits: 24

#### GC: Geocomputation

Compiling basic computer programmes in a geographical information system

GC10: Computer programming (36)
Algorithms; Standard query language (SQL); Imperative and functional programming language; Agent based models; Celular automata; Software development for desktop and mobile devices.

Total Credits: 36

#### RM: Research methodology

Undertaking research, compile technical and project reports.

RM1: Portfolio of evidence (36)
Mini thesis demonstrating research and practical skills in the application of relevant competencies applied in the GISc field.

Total Credits: 36

#### CV: Cartography and visualization

Understanding and applying cartography and visualization techniques

CV2: Data considerations (8)
Source materials for mapping; Data abstraction: classification, selection, and generalization; Projections as a map design issue.

CV3: Principles of map design (8)
Map design fundamentals; Basic concepts of symbolization; Color for cartography and visualization; Typography for cartography and visualization; Visual perception, graphicacy, cartographic communication (including information sense-making, information use and information-knowledge transformation), graphic space, symbology (point, line, area, pictorial, 3-D), colour, cartographic design, typonomy, generalization, map use, multimedia mapping, data visualization, 2-D and 3-D visualization, interactive maps, Web maps, general purpose maps, relief representation, thematic maps (including statistical mapping), Virtual globes. Presentation and manipulation of point clouds.

CV6: Map use and evaluation (8)
The power of maps; Map reading; Map interpretation; Map analysis; Evaluation and testing; Impact of uncertainty.

Total Credits: 24

#### GD: Geospatial data

Understanding working with Geospatial data

GD1: Earth geometry (8)
Earth’s shape; geoid, spheres and ellipsoids

GD3: Georeferencing systems (8)
Geographic coordinate system; Plane coordinate systems; Linear referencing systems. Two- and three-dimensional coordinate systems, grid reference systems, geographical coordinates; SA Survey co-ordinate system and UTM system.

GD4: Datums (8)
Horizontal datums; Vertical datums. Reference datums.

GD5: Map projections (8)
Map projection types and characteristics; Georeferencing; mathematical models of projection and projection properties; Reprojections.

GD6: Data quality (8)
Primary and secondary sources, Geometric accuracy; Thematic accuracy; Logical consistency, Resolution; Precision; Metadata. Completeness and temporal quality. Digitsing and editing of data.

GD7: Land surveying, land law, and GPS/GNSS (12)
Survey theory and electro-optical methods; Land law: South African cadastral survey system and the Land Survey Act and Regulations, registration systems.Global Positioning System (GNSS).

GD10 Aerial imaging and photogrammetry (8)
Principles of analogue and digital photography, photogrammetric measurement and data processing including geometry of images, relative and absolute orientation, bundle adjustment and aero triangulation, ortho-rectification, mosaicing, digital elevation models. Accuracy and reliability assessment of photogrammetrically derived data, image (photo) interpretation, creation of 3D computer model of landscapes settlements and buildings. Virtual globes

GD11 Satellite and shipboard remote sensing (12)
Earth radiation model and electro-magnetic spectrum, electo-magnetic energy in remote sensing, sensor systems (airborne, space borne and terrestrial), satellite orbits, geometry of sensors and sensor systems (airborne and satellite), acquisition of images, image media and formats incl. image compression. Nature of multispectral image data; Platforms and sensors; Algorithms and processing; Ground verification and accuracy assessment; Applications and settings; image processing (including image enhancement, image feature extraction, classification). Application of terrestial and aerial laser scanning. Hyperspectral; radar remote sensing.

Total Credits: 72

#### GSc: Geographical Science

Understanding Geographical Science as it relates to GISc

GSc1 Area and spatial analysis (12)
Comprises the reading, analysis and interpretation of spatial information; Basic concepts and terminology. Place and landscape. Broader understanding of what GIS is and what it involves. Geography as a foundation for GIS. Historical perspective. Application fields. Understand different fields contributing and forming part of GISc. Components of a GIS. Functionality, analysis and processess involved.

GISc2 Earth and environmental science (12)
GIS in earth and environmental studies:
A combination of any of the following: Climatology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Ecology structural geology, engineering geology, interpretation of geological maps, integrated environmental management, environmental impact assessment, development science and theory, urban systems and human settlement, population geography, Disasters (natural and manmade), sustainable development, natural environmental systems (water, atmospheric, oceanographic, fauna/flora etc.), tourism, conservation (natural or heritage), climate change:

Total Credits: 24

#### GS: GI S&T and society

Applying professionalism and ethics in the GISc environment

GS6: Ethical aspects of geospatial information and technology (6)

Ethics and professionalism in the GISc practice; Codes of ethics for geospatial professionals; Codes of conduct in the GISc field.

Legislation regulating the profession. Intellectual property rights and copyright, privacy rights.

GS8: Business and project management (6)

Effective communication within the built environment (written and spoken communication, communication in the workplace); Management functions (planning, controlling, organising, decision-making), human resource management, financial management and management accounting, marketing and client relations, labour legislation, taxation, project planning, costing, resource allocation, project control and reporting, business communication, report writing, contract law. Risk management and Health and Safety management

Total Credits: 12

#### OI: Organizational and institutional aspects

Operating in the geomatics industry

OI5: Institutional and interinstitutional aspects (8)

Spatial data infrastructures; Adoption of standards; Metadata; Data transfer and exchange; Spatial data sharing among organizations; Openness; Balancing data access, security, and privacy; Implications of distributed GI S&T; Inter-organisational and vendor GI systems (software, hardware and systems). Data warehousing.

OI6: Coordinating organisations (National and international) (4)

National and international organisations and programs; State and regional coordinating bodies; Professional organizations; Publications; The geospatial community; The geospatial industry.

Total Credits: 12

#### Credits for specialization

The learner may select one but not more than three core KA's for specialization.

Total Credits: 48